been related by Nawf al-Bikali that Amir al-mu'minin `Ali (p.b.u.h.)
delivered this sermon at Kufah standing on a stone which Ja`dah ibn
Hubayrah al-Makhzumi had placed for him. Amir al-mu'minin had a woollen
apparel on his body, the belt of his sword was made of leaves, and the
sandals on his feet too were of palm leaves. His forehead had a hardened
spot like that a camel (on its knee, due to many and long prostrations).
About Allah's attributes, His creatures and His being above physical
Praise be to Allah to Whom
is the return of all creation and the end of all matters. We render Him
praise for the greatness of His generosity, the charity of His proofs, the
increase of His bounty and His favours, - praise which may fulfil His
right, repay His thanks, take (us) near His reward and be productive of
increase in His kindness. We seek His help like one who is hopeful of His
bounty, desirous of His benefit, and confident of His warding off
(calamities), who acknowledges His gifts and is obedient to Him in word
We believe in Him like him
who reposes hope in Him with conviction, inclines to Him as a believer,
humbles himself before Him obediently, believes in His oneness
exclusively, regards Him great, acknowledging His dignity, and seeks
refuge with Him with inclination and exertion.
Allah the Glorified has not
been born so that someone could be (His) partner in glory. Nor has He
begotten anyone so as to be inherited from after dying. Time and period
have not preceded Him. Increase and decrease do not occur to Him. But He
has manifested Himself to our understanding through our having observed
His strong control and firm decree.
Among the proofs of His
creation is the creation of the skies which are fastened without pillars
and stand without support. He called them and they responded obediently
and humbly without being lazy or loathsome. If they had not acknowledged
His Godhead and obeyed Him He would not have made them the place for His
throne, the abode of His angels and the destination for the rising up of
the pure utterances and the righteous deeds of the creatures.
He has made the stars in the
skies by way of signs by which travellers wandering the various routes of
the earth may be guided. The gloom of the dark curtains of the night does
not prevent the flame of their light, nor do the veils of blackish nights
have the power to turn back the light of the moon when it spreads in the
skies. Glory be to Allah from Whom neither the blackness of dark dusk or
of gloomy night (falling) in the low parts of the earth or on high dim
mountains is hidden, nor the thundering of clouds on the horizons of the
skies, nor the sparking of lightning in the clouds, nor the falling of
leaves blown away from their falling places by the winds of hurricanes or
by downpour from the sky. He knows where the drops fall and where they
stay, where the grubs leave their trails or where they drag themselves,
what livelihood would suffice the mosquitoes and what a female bears in
Praise be to Allah Who
exists from before the coming into existence of the seat, the throne, the
sky, the earth, the jinn or human being. He cannot be perceived by
imagination nor measured by understanding. He who begs from Him does not
divert Him (from others), nor does giving away cause Him diminution. He
does not see by means of an eye, nor can He be confined to a place. He
cannot be said to have companions. He does not create with (the help of)
limbs. He cannot be perceived by senses. He cannot be thought of after the
It is He who spoke to Musa
clearly and showed him His great signs without the use of bodily parts,
the organ of speech or the uvula. O' you who exert yourself in describing
Allah if you are serious then (first try to) describe Gabriel, Michael or
the host of angels who are close (to Allah) in the receptacles of
sublimity; but their heads are bent downwards and their wits are perplexed
as to how to assign limits (of definition) to the Highest Creator. This is
because those things can only be perceived through qualities which have
shape and parts and which succumb to death after reaching the end of their
times. There is no god but He. He has lighted every darkness with His
effulgence and has darkened every light with the darkness (of death).
An account of past peoples and about learning from them
I advise you, creatures of
Allah, to practise fear of Allah Who gave you good clothing and bestowed
an abundance of sustenance on you. If there was anyone who could secure a
ladder to everlasting life or a way to avoid death it was Sulayman ibn
Dawud (p. b. u. h. ) who was given control over the domain of the jinn and
men along with prophethood and great position (before Allah), but when he
finished what was his due in food (of this world) and exhausted his
(fixed) time the bow of destruction shot him with arrow of death. His
houses became vacant and his habitations became empty. Another group of
people inherited them. Certainly, the by-gone centuries have a lesson for
Where are the Amalekites
(1) and the sons
of Amalekites? Where are the Pharaohs? (2)
Where are the people of the
cities of ar-Rass (3)
who killed the prophets, destroyed the traditions of the divine messengers
and revived the traditions of the despots? Where are those who advanced
with armies, defeated thousands, mobilised forces and populated cities?
A part of the same sermon about the Imam al-Mahdi
He will be wearing the
armour of wisdom, which he will have secured with all its conditions, such
as full attention towards it, its (complete) knowledge and exclusive
devotion to it. For him it is like a thing which he had lost and which he
was then seeking, or a need which he was trying to fulfil. If Islam is in
trouble he will feel forlorn like a traveller and like a (tired) camel
beating the end of its tail and with its neck flattened on the ground. He
is the last of Allah's proofs and one of the vicegerents of His prophets.
Then Amir al-mu'minin continued:
On the method of his ruling, and grief over the martyrdom of his
O' people! I have divulged
to you advice which the prophets used to preach before their peoples, and
I have conveyed to you what the vicegerents (of the prophets) conveyed to
those coming after them. I tried to train you with my whip but you could
not be straightened. I drove you with admonition but you did not acquire
proper behaviour. May Allah deal with you! Do you want an Imam other than
me to take you on the (right) path, and show you the correct way?
Beware, the things in this
world which were forward have become things of the past, and those of
which were behind are going ahead. The virtuous people of Allah have made
up their minds to leave and they have purchased, with a little perishable
(pleasure) of this world, a lot of such (reward) in the next world that
What loss did our brothers
whose blood was shed in Siffin suffer by not being alive today? Only that
they are not suffering choking on swallowings and not drinking turbid
water. By Allah, surely they have met Allah and He has bestowed upon them
their rewards and He has lodged them in safe houses after their (having
Where are my brethren who
took the (right) path and trod in rightness. Where is `Ammar?
(4) Where is Ibn
Where is Dhu'sh-Shahadatayn?
(6)And where are others like them
(7)from among their comrades who had pledged themselves to death and whose
(severed) heads were taken to the wicked enemy.
Then Amir al-mu'minin wiped
his hand over his auspicious, honoured beard and wept for a long time,
then he continued:
Oh! my brothers, who recited
the Qur'an and strengthened it, thought over their obligation and
fulfilled it, revived the sunnah and destroyed innovation. When they were
called to jihad they responded and trusted in their leader then followed
Then Amir al-mu'minin
shouted at the top of his voice:
(fighting, fighting), O' creatures of Allah! By Allah, I am mobilising the
army today. He who desires to proceed towards Allah should come forward.
Nawf says: Then Amir al-mu'minin put Husayn
(p.b.u.h.) over (a force of) ten thousand, Qays ibn Sa`d (mercy of Allah
be upon him) over ten thousand, Abu Ayyub al-Ansari over ten thousand, and
others over different numbers, intending to return to Siffin, but Friday
did not appear again and the accursed Ibn Muljam (may Allah curse him)
killed him. Consequently, the armies came back and were left like sheep
who had lost their shepherd while wolves were snatching them away from all
History shows that very often the ruin and destruction of peoples has been
due to their oppression and open wickedness and profligacy. Consequently,
communities which had extended their sway over all the corners of the
populated world and had flown their flags in the East and West of the
globe disappeared from the surface of the earth like a wrong word, on
disclosure of their vicious actions and evil doings. Amalekites: ancient
nomadic tribe, or collection of tribes, described in the Old Testament as
relentless enemies of Israel, even though they were closely related to
Ephraim, one of the twelve tribes of Israel. Their name derives from
Amalek, who is celebrated in Arabian tradition but cannot be identified.
The district over which they ranged was south of Judah and probably
extended into northern Arabia.
The Amalekites harassed the
Hebrews during their exodus out of Egypt and attacked them at Rephidim
(near Mt. Sinai), where they were defeated by Joshua. They also filled out
the ranks of the nomadic raiders defeated by Gideon and were condemned to
annihilation by Samuel. The Amelekites, whose final defeat occurred in the
time of Hezekiah, were the object of a perpetual curse. (The New
Encyclopaedia Britannica [Micropaedia], vol. 1, p. 288, ed. 1973-1974;
also see [for further reference] The Encyclopaedia Americana,
[International Edition] vol. 1, p. 651, ed. 1975).
Pharaoh: Hebrew form of the Egyptian per-'o ("the great house"),
signifying the royal palace, an epithet applied in the New Kingdom and
after, as a title of respect, to the Egyptian king himself. In the 22nd
dynasty the title was added to the king's personal name.
In official documents the
full titulary of the Egyptian king contained five names. The first and
oldest identified him as the incarnation of the falcon god, Horus; it was
often written inside a square called serekh, depicting the facade of the
archaic palace. The second name, "two ladies", placed him under the
protection of Nekhbet and Buto, the vulture and uraeus (snake) goddesses
of Upper and Lower Egypt; the third, "golden Horus", signified perhaps
originally "Horus victorious over his enemies." The last two names,
written within a ring or cartouche, are generally referred to as the
praenomen and nomen, and were the ones most commonly used; the praenomen
and nomen, and were the ones most commonly used; the praenomen, preceded
by the hieroglyph meaning "King of Upper and Lower Egypt," usually
contained a reference to the king's Unique relationship with the sun god,
Re, while the fifth, or nomen, was preceded by the hieroglyph for "Son of
Re," or by that for "Lord of the two lands.
" The last name was given
him at birth, the rest at his coronation. (The New Encyclopaedia
Britannica [Micropaedia], vol. Vll, p. 927, ed. 1973-1974; also see [for
further reference] The Encyclopaedia Americana, [International Edition],
vol. 21, p. 707, ed. 1975).
Among the Pharaohs was the
Pharaoh of the days of Prophet Musa. His pride, egotism, insolence and
haughtiness were such that by making the claim "I am your sublime God" he
deemed himself to be holding sway over all other powers of the world, and
was under the misunderstanding that no power could wrest the realm and
government from his hands. The Qur'an has narrated his claim of "I and no
one else" in the following words:
And proclaimed Pharaoh
unto his people, "O' my people! is not the kingdom of Egypt mine? And
these rivers flow below me; What! behold ye not? (43:51)
But when his empire came
near the end it was destroyed in a few moments. Neither his position and
servants could come in the way of its destruction nor could the vastness
of his realm prevent it. Rather, the waves of the very streams which he
was extremely proud to possess, wrapped him in and dispatched his spirit
to Hell throwing the body on the bank to serve as a lesson for the whole
The people of the cities of ar-Rass: In the same way the people of ar-Rass
were killed and destroyed for disregarding the preaching and call of a
prophet, and for revolt and disobedience. About them the Qur'an says:
And the (tribes of) `Ad
and Thamud and the inhabitants of ar-Rass, and generations between them,
in great number. And unto each of them We did give examples and every
one (of them) We did destroy with utter extermination. (25:38,39)
Belied (also) those before
them the people of Noah and the dwellers of ar-Rass and Thamud; And `Ad
and Pharaoh, and the brethren of Lot; And the dwellers of the Wood and
the people of Tubba`; all belied the apostles, so was proved true My
promise (of the doom) (50:12-14)
`Ammar ibn Yasir ibn `Amir al-`Ansi al-Madhhiji al Makhzumi (a confederate
of Banu Makhzum) was one of the earliest converts to Islam, and the first
Muslim to build a mosque in his own house in which he used to worship
Allah (at-Tabaqat, vol. 3, Part 1, p. 178; Usd al-ghabah, vol. 4, p. 46;
Ibn Kathir, at-Tarikh, vol. 7, p. 311).
`Ammar accepted Islam along
with his father Yasir and his mother Sumayyah. They suffered great
tortures by the Quraysh, due to their conversion to Islam, to such an
extent that `Ammar lost his parents; and they were the first martyrs man
and woman in Islam.
`Ammar was among those who
immigrated to Abyssinia, and the earliest immigrants (muhajirun) to
Medina. He was present in the battle of Badr and all other battles as well
as places of assembly by the Muslims during the lifetime of the Holy
Prophet; and he showed his might and favour in all Islamic struggles in
the best way.
Many traditions are narrated
from the Holy Prophet about `Ammar regarding his virtues, outstanding
traits and his glorious deeds, such as the tradition which `A'ishah and
other have narrated that the Holy Prophet himself had said that `Ammar was
filled with faith from the crown of his head to the soles of his feet.
(Ibn Majah, as-Sunan, vol. 1, p. 65; Abu Nu`aym, Hilyah al-Awliya', vol.
1, p. 139; al-Haytami, Majma` az-zawa'id, vol. 9, p. 295; al-Isti`ab, vol.
3, p. 1137; al-Isabah, vol. 2, p. 512)
In another tradition the
Holy Prophet said about `Ammar:
`Ammar is with the truth
and the truth is with `Ammar. He turns wherever the truth turns. `Ammar
is as near to me as an eye is near to the nose. Alas! a rebellious group
will kill him. (at-Tabaqat, vol. 3, part 1, p. 187; al-Mustadrak, vol.
3, p. 392; Ibn Hisham, as-Sirah, vol. 2, p. 143; Ibn Kathir, at-Tarikh,
vol. 7, pp. 268-270)
Also in the decisive and
widely known tradition which al-Bukhari (in Sahih, vol. 8, pp. 185-186),
at-Tirmidhi (in al-Jami` as-Sahih, vol. 5, p. 669); Ahmad ibn Hanbal (in
al-Musnad, vol. 2, pp. 161,164,206; vol. 3, pp.5, 22, 28, 91; vol. 4,
pp.197, 199, vol. 5 pp.215, 306, 307; vol. 6, pp.289, 300, 311, 315), and
all the narrators of Islamic traditions and historians transmitted through
twenty-five Companions that the Holy Prophet said about `Ammar:
Alas! a rebellious group
which swerves from the truth will murder `Ammar. `Ammar will be calling
them towards Paradise and they will be calling him towards Hell. His
killer and those who strip him of arms and clothing will be in Hell.
Ibn Hajar al-`Asqalani (in
Tahdhib at-tahdhib, vol. 7, p. 409; al-lsabah, vol. 2, p.512) and
as-Suyuti (in al-Khasa'is al-kubra, vol. 2, p. 140) say: "The narration of
this (above mentioned) tradition is mutawatir (i.e. narrated successively
by so many people that no doubt can be entertained about its
Ibn `Abd al-Barr (in
al-Isti`ab, vol. 3, p. 1140) says:
The narration followed
uninterrupted succession from the Holy Prophet, that he said: "A
rebellious group will murder `Ammar," and this is a prophecy of the
Prophet's secret knowledge and the sign of his prophethood. This
tradition is among the most authentic and the most rightly ascribed
After the death of the Holy
Prophet, `Ammar was one of the closest adherents and best supporters of
Amir al-mu'minin during the reign of the first three Caliphs. During the
caliphate of `Uthman when the Muslim protested (to `Uthman) against his
policy on the distribution of the Public Treasury (Baytu'l-mal) `Uthman
said in a public assembly that, 'the money which as in the treasury was
sacred and belonged to Allah, and that he (as being the successor of the
Prophet) had the right to dispose of them as he thought fit. 'He (`Uthman)
threatened and cursed all who presumed to censure or murmur at what he
Upon this, `Ammar ibn Yasir
boldly declared his disapprobation and began to charge him with his
inveterate propensity to ignore the interests of the general public;
accused him with reviving the heathenish customs abolished by the Prophet.
Whereupon `Uthman commanded him to be beaten and immediately some of the
Umayyads, the kindred of the Caliph fell upon the venerable `Ammar, and
the Caliph himself kicking him with his shoes (on his feet) on `Ammar's
testicles, and afflicted him with hernia.
`Ammar became unconscious
for three days, and he was taken care of by Umm al-mu'minin Umm Salamah in
her own house. (al-Baladhuri, Ansab al-ashraf, vol. 5, pp. 48,54,88; Ibn
Abi'l-Hadid, vol. 3, pp. 47-52; al-lmamah wa's-siyasah, vol. 1, pp. 35-36;
al-`Iqd al-farid, vol. 4, p. 307; at-Tabaqat, vol. 3, Part 1, p. 185;
Tarikh al-khamis, vol. 2, p. 271)
When Amir al-mu'minin became
Caliph, `Ammar was one of his most sincere supporters. He participated
fully in all social, political and military activities during this period,
especially in the first battle (the battle of Jamal) and the second one
(the battle of Siffin).
However, `Ammar was martyred
on 9th Safar 37 A.H. in the battle of Siffin when a he was over ninety
years of age. On the day `Ammar ibn Yasir achieved martyrdom, he turned
his face to the sky and said:
O' my Allah! surely Thou
art aware that if I know that Thy wish is that I should plunge myself
into this River (the Euphrates) and be drowned, I will do it. O' my
Allah! surely Thou knowest that if I knew that Thou would be pleased if
I put my scimitar on my chest (to hit my heart) and pressed it so hard
that it came out of my back, I would do it. O' my Allah! I do not think
there is anything more pleasant to Thee than fighting with this sinful
group, and if knew that any action were more pleasant to Thee I would do
Abu `Abd ar-Rahman as-Sulami
"We were present with Amir
al-mu'minin at Siffin where I saw `Ammar ibn Yasir was not turning his
face towards any side, nor valleys (wadis [of the land] ) of Siffin but
the companions of the Holy Prophet were following him as if he was a sign
for them. Then I heard `Ammar say to Hashim ibn 'Utbah (al-Mirqal): 'O'
Hashim! rush into enemy's ranks, paradise is under sword!
Today I meet beloved one,
Muhammad and his party'.
"Then he said: 'By Allah, if
they put us to flight (and pursue us) to the date-palms of Hajar (a town
in Bahrain, Persian Gulf [i.e., if they pursue us along all the Arabian
desert] nevertheless) we know surely that we are right and they are
wrong.' "Then he (Ammar) continued (addressing the enemies):
We struck you to (believe
in) its (Holy Qur'an) revelation; And today we strike you to (believe
in) its interpretation; Such strike as to remove heads from their
resting places; And to make the friend forget his sincere friend; Until
the truth returns to its (right) path.'"
The narrator says: "I did
not see the Holy Prophet's companions killed at any time as many as they
were killed on this day." Then `Ammar spurred his horse, entered the
battlefield and began fighting. He persistently chased the enemy, made
attack after attack, and raised challenging slogans till at last a group
of mean-spirited Syrians surrounded him on all sides, and a man named Abu
al-Ghadiyah al-Juhari (al-Fazari) inflicted such a wound upon him that he
could not bear it, and returned to his camp. He asked for water.
A tumbler of milk was
brought to him. When `Ammar looked at the tumbler he said: "The Messenger
of Allah had said the right thing." People asked him what he meant by
He said "The Messenger of
Allah informed me that the last sustenance for me in this world would be
milk." Then he took that tumbler of milk in his hands, drank the milk and
surrendered his life to Allah, the Almighty. When Amir al-mu'minin came to
know of his death, he came to `Ammar's side, put his (`Ammar's) head on
his own lap, and recited the following elegy to mourn his death:
Surely any Muslim who is
not distressed at the murder of the son of Yasir, and is not be
afflicted by this grievous misfortune does not have true faith.
May Allah show His mercy
to `Ammar the day he embraced Islam, may Allah show His mercy to `Ammar
the day he was killed, and may Allah show His mercy to `Ammar the day he
is raised to life.
Certainly, I found `Ammar
(on such level) that three companions of the Holy Prophet could not be
named unless he was the fourth, and four of them could not be mentioned
unless he was the fifth.
There was none among the
Holy Prophet's companions who doubted that not only was Paradise once or
twice compulsorily bestowed upon `Ammar, but that he gained his claim to
it (a number of times). May Paradise give enjoyment to `Ammar.
Certainly, it was said (by
the Holy Prophet) "Surely, `Ammar is with the truth and the truth is
with `Ammar. He turns wherever the truth turns. His killer will be in
Then Amir al-mu'minin
stepped forward and offered funeral prayers for him, and then with his own
hands, he buried him with his clothes.
`Ammar's death caused a good
deal of commotion in the ranks of Mu`awiyah too, because there were a
large number of prominent people fighting from his side under the
impression created in their minds that he was fighting Amir al-mu'minin
for a right cause. These people were aware of the saying of the Holy
Prophet that `Ammar would be killed by a group who would be on the wrong
When they observed that
`Ammar had been killed by Mu`awiyah's army, they became convinced that
they were on the wrong side and that Amir al-mu'minin was definitely on
the right. This agitation thus caused among the leaders as well as the
rank and file of Mu`awiyah's army, was quelled by him with the argument
that it was Amir al-mu'minin who brought `Ammar to the battlefield and
therefore it was he who was responsible for his death. When Mu`awiyah's
argument was mentioned before Amir al-mu'minin he said it was as though
the Prophet was responsible for killing Hamzah as he brought him to the
battle of Uhud. (at-Tabari, at-Tarikh, vol. 1, pp. 3316-3322; vol. 3, pp.
2314-2319; Ibn Sa`d,
at-Tabaqat, vol. 3, Part 1, pp. 176-189; Ibn al-Athir, al-Kamil, vol. 3,
pp. 308-312; Ibn Kathir, at-Tarikh, vol. 7, pp, 267-272; al-Minqari,
Siffin, pp. 320-345; Ibn `Abd al-Barr, al-Isti'ab, vol . 3, pp. 1135-
1140; vol. 4, p. 1725; Ibn al-Athir, Usd al-ghabah, vol. 4, pp. 43-47;
vol. 5, p. 267; Ibn Abi'l-Hadid, Sharh Nahj al-balaghah, vol. 5, pp.
252-258; vol. 8, pp. 10-28; vol. 10, pp. 102-107, al-Hakim, al-Mustadrak,
vol. 3, pp. 384-394; Ibn `Abd Rabbih, al-`Iqd al-farid, vol. 4, pp.
340-343; al-Mas`udi, Muruj adh-dhahab, vol. 2, pp. 381-382, al-Haytami,
Majma` az-zawa'id, vol. 7, pp. 238-244; vol. 9, pp. 291-298; al-Baladhuri,
Ansab al-ashraf (Biography of Amir al-mu'minin), pp. 310-319.
Abu'l-Haytham (Malik) ibn at-Tayyihan al-Ansari was one of the twelve
chiefs (naqib [of ansar]) who attended the fair and met at al-`Aqabah --
in the first `Aqabah and among those who attended in the second `Aqabah --
where he gave the Holy Prophet the 'pledge of Islam'.
He was present in the battle
of Badr and all other battles as well as places of assembly by the Muslims
during the lifetime of the Holy Prophet. He was also among the sincere
supporters of Amir al-mu'minin and he attended the battle of Jamal as well
as Siffin where he was martyred. (al-Isti`ab, vol. 4, p. 1773; Siffin, p.
365; Usd al-ghabah, vol. 4, p. 274; vol. 5, p. 318; al-Isabah, vol. 3, p.
341; vol. 4, pp. 312-313; Ibn Abi'l-Hadid, vol. 10, pp. 107-108; Ansab
al-ashraf, p. 319).
(6). Khuzaymah ibn Thabit
al-Ansari. He is known as Dhu'sh-Shahadatayn because the Holy Prophet
considered his evidence equivalent to the evidence of two witnesses He was
present in the battle of Badr, and other battles as well as in the places
of assembly of the Muslims during the lifetime of the Holy Prophet.
He is counted among the
earliest of those who showed their adherence to Amir al-mu'minin and he
was also present in the battle of Jamal and Siffin. `Abd ar-Rahman ibn Abi
Layla narrated that he saw a man in the battle of Siffin fighting the
enemy valiantly and when he protested against his action, the man said:
I am Khuzaymah ibn Thabit
al-Ansari, I have heard the Holy Prophet saying "Fight, fight, by the
side of `Ali." (al-Khatib al-Baghdadi, Muwaddih awham al-jam`
wa't-tafriq, vol. 1, p. 277).
Khuzaymah was martyred in
the battle of Siffin soon after the martyrdom of `Ammar ibn Yasir.
Sayf ibn `Umar al-Usayydi
(the well known liar) has fabricated another Khuzaymah, and claimed that
the one who was martyred in the battle of Siffin was this one and not the
one with the surname of 'Dhu'sh-Shahadatayn'. at-Tabari has quoted this
fabricated story from Sayf either intentionally or otherwise, and through
him this story has affected some other historians who quoted from
at-Tabari or relied on him. (For further reference, see al-`Askari,
Khamsun wa miah sahabi mukhtalaq [one hundred and fifty fabricated
companions], vol. 2, pp. 175-189).
After having denied this
story Ibn Abi'l-Hadid adds (in Sharh Nahj al-balaghah, vol. 10, pp.
Furthermore, what is the
need for those who to defend Amir al-mu'minin to make a boast of
abundance with Khuzaymah, Abu'l-Haytham, `Ammar and others. If people
treat this man (Amir al-mu'minin) with justice and look at him with
healthy eyes they will certainly realise that should he be alone (on one
side) and the people all together (on the other side) fighting him, he
will be in the truth and all the rest will be in the wrong. (at-Tabaqat,
3, Part 1, pp. 185,188;
al-Mustadrak, vol. 3, pp. 385, 397; Usd al-ghabah, vol. 2, p. 114; vol.
4, p. 47; al-lsti`ab, vol. 2, p. 448; at-Tabari, vol. 3, pp.2316, 2319,
2401; al-Kamil, vol. 3, p. 325; Siffin, pp. 363, 398; Ansab al-ashraf,
Among the people who were present in the battle of Jamal on the side of
Amir al-muminin there were one hundred and thirty Badries (those who
participated in the battle of Badr with the Holy Prophet) and seven
hundred of those who were present in the 'pledge of ar-Ridwan'
(Bay`atu'r-Ridwan) which took place under a tree.
al-lslam, vol. 2, p. 171; Khalifah ibn Khayyat, at-Tarikh vol. 1, p. 164).
Those who were killed in the battle of Jamal from the side of Amir
al-muminin numbered some five hundred (some said that the number of
martyrs were more than that). But on the side of the people of Jamal
twenty thousand were killed. (al-`lqd al-farid, vol. 4, p. 326).
Among those who were present
in the battle of Siffin on the side of Amir al-mu'minin, there were eighty
Badries and eight hundred of those who gave the Holy Prophet the 'pledge
of ar-Ridwan.' (al-Mustadrak, vol. 3, p. 104 al-Isti`a'b, vol. 3, p. 1138;
al-Isabah, vol. 2, p. 389; at-Tarikh, al-Ya`qubi, vol. 2, p. 188).
On the side of Mu`awiyah
forty-five thousand were killed, and on the side of Amir al-muminin
twenty-five thousand. Among these martyrs (of Amir al-mu'minin) there were
twenty-five or twenty-six Badries and sixty-three or three hundred and
three of the people of the 'pledge of ar-Ridwan'.
(Siffin, p. 558; al-Isti`ab,
vol. 2, p. 389, Ansab al-ashraf, p. 322; Ibn Abi'l-Hadid, vol. 10, p. 104;
Abu'l-Fida' vol. 1, p. 175, Ibn al-Wardi, at-Tarikh, vol. 1, p. 240; Ibn
Kathir, vol. 7, p. 275; Tarikh al-khamis, vol. 2, p. 277)
Besides the distinguished
and eminent companions of Amir al-mu'minin like `Ammar, Dhu'sh-Shahadatayn
and Ibn al-Tayyihan, who lay martyred in Siffin were:--
i. Hashim ibn `Utbah ibn Abi
Waqqas al-Mirqal was killed on the same day when `Ammar was martyred. He
was the bearer of the standard of Amir al-mu'minin's army on that day.
ii. Abdullah ibn Budayl ibn
al-Warqa' al-Khuza`i was sometimes the right wing Commander of Amir
al-muminin's army and sometimes the infantry Commander.